Education

The Culmination Of Our Industry Experience

Being deeply rooted in the competitive rifle shooting community, we feel that it is only fair that we leverage our industry experience and connections to offer in return a wide range of media resources, all educational in nature, back to the community. Here you will find product support materials, white papers, and video tutorials all free of charge!

Bullet Data

Applied Ballistics has an extensive list of tested bullets. We have been publishing these in one form or another for more than a decade now. Aside from the Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets books (now in the 3rd Edition), we also have our main library. The AB Connect™ System was introduced in 2017, and allows systems integrated in to it to maintain its library automatically from the server in our Laboratory. You can see a list of our current library here: Complete Bullet List. Aside from our main library you will also find reference material in our Educational Library. More on that below, starting with Bullet Data Sheets.

The information provided in the bullet data sheets is the result of independent testing by Applied Ballistics. The bullet data sheets provide: dimensioned drawings and geometric information, drag and velocity specific BC measurements, and a stability map for a variety of barrel twists and atmospheric conditions. The data sheets are formatted just like those found in Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets 3rd Edition. In that book, you can find similar data sheets for over 720 long range bullets. Here is a complete list: BP 3rd Edition Bullet List.

This sample data sheet shows all the information available in the data sheets, along with some discussion about what the information means and how to use it.

The dimensioned drawings are useful for several purposes.  Obviously they give you an idea of how a bullet is proportioned in relation to other bullets.  You can use the dimensional information to design custom chambers to fit a particular bullet.  You can also use the bullet dimensions in aerodynamic prediction programs to generate data tables for high level simulations.

The parameters listed below the drawing are self explanatory, perhaps with the exception of the Ogive Radius and Rt/R parameters.  Most bullet noses are sections of circular arcs.  The Ogive Radius is the radius of the circle used to generate the nose profile.  The Rt/R ratio is basically a measure of how aggressive the ogive shape is.  An Rt/R ratio of 1.00 would be a perfectly tangent ogive, meaning the nose connects with the bearing surface very smoothly.  An Rt/R of 0.5 represents the most aggressive VLD style ogive which has the appearance of an abrupt transition from nose to body.  Rt/R values close to 0.5 result in lower drag for the bullet, but also make the bullet more sensitive to seating depth.

The Drag and Ballistic Coefficient data is a complete representation of the bullets flight characteristics over a range of velocities.  The bullets drag coefficient as well as it’s G1 and G7 form factors and BC’s are tabulated in 500 fps increments from 3000 down to 1500 fps.  This is useful for determining which standard (G1 or G7) is a better fit for the particular bullet.  The BC which shows the least amount of variation over the velocity range is the appropriate BC to use.  Typically for boat tail bullets, the G7 standard is a better representation.

The Rifling Twist Rate and Stability map shows the gyroscopic stability factor (as calculated by the Miller Twist Rule) for the bullet when fired from various barrel twists in different environmental conditions.  Thinner air results in higher stability, and vice versa.  The conditions associated with Best, Nominal and Worse case scenarios are as follows:

Best case: 1000 feet altitude, 100% humidity, 100 degrees F, and 3000 fps muzzle velocity.

 

Nominal case: sea level, 50% humidity, 59 degrees F, and 2800 fps muzzle velocity.

 

Worse case: sea level, 0% humidity, 0 degrees F, and 2600 fps muzzle velocity.

 

Of course there are extremes that would exceed the best and worse case, but the point is to demonstrate how much these environmental conditions affect stability.

 

Rimfire information is scarce, which is surprising for how popular it is. Applied Ballistics has begun an in-depth research project in to Rimfire Ammunition. In the 2nd Edition we added 90 Rimfire Bullets. Along with the Data Sheets found in the Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets 2nd Edition NOTE: Rimfire Bullets are not found in the Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets 3rd Edition, only in the second, you will also find an in-depth study of Rimfire Ammunition in Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting Vol 2. Just some of the topics include: Average MV, Standard Deviation of MV, Ballistic Coeffecient referenced to the G1 Standard, Standard Deviation of the G1 BC, Average Performance Through All Barrels, Rimfire Ammo Sorted by Consistency, Consistency of Muzzle Velocities in Relation to the Speed of Sound, Effects of Barrel Length and Twist on Rimfire Ammo Performance, How does the Barrel Length affect Muzzle Velocity, How does the Barrel Length Effect SD of Muzzle Velocity, How does the Twist Rate affect the Average BC, Does the Twist Rate effect the Consistency of BC, and more!

Custom Drag Model Data

Applied Ballistics has been providing Custom Drag Models for use in trajectory prediction for over a decade. Custom Drag Models (CDM’s) for bullets are a more refined way of modeling drag for bullets because you’re not referencing a standard like G1 or G7, rather you’re using the actual measured drag of a specific bullet in a ballistic solver. This results in more accurate trajectory predictions especially thru transonic. Using our state of the art laboratory and mobile laboratory we are able to generate this information through live fire testing under controlled conditions.

Although the benefits of this approach to modeling drag sound obvious, many questions have arisen as to how the custom drag models are different from BC’s, and what it all means. In this article, we start at first principles and build an understanding of how drag is modeled as a force, and how that’s applied in ballistic solvers to arrive at highly accurate ballistic predictions. Finally, the article concludes with some real world examples of how accurate ballistic trajectories can be in the real world when using CDM’s in the Applied Ballistics solver.

This article appears as Chapter 10 in Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting – Vol 2. Custom Drag Model Article

Applied Ballistics has measured and characterized the BC’s and drag models for over 850 modern bullets. This information is then implemented into the Apps, Devices, and Software through methods like our AB Connect™ system. Also the BC, stability and dimensional data for these bullets has been published in the past in books such as Ballistic Performance of Rifle Bullets – 3rd Edition (Library 720). All of this bullet data is also available in a digital library for use with the Applied Ballistics programs. You can click here to view a listing of all the bullets currently contained in these libraries. AB Bullet Library

Historically, one of the biggest challenges of calculating accurate trajectories was properly modeling the aerodynamic drag of bullets. Applied Ballistics ongoing live fire research in this area has elevated the state of the art by reducing the uncertainty in this area.

In summary, the measured CDM’s provided by Applied Ballistics have increased the accuracy of ballistic solvers. These CDM’s are available for all 815+ bullets in the AB library, and run on the various platforms and devices which run the AB program. This is the state of the art, in your hands.

CDM’s are available in the following products: Garmin Foretrex 701 – Kestrel Elite/Ballistics/Ruger – Kestrel 4500 – Sig Sauer Kilo 2400 – RAPTAR S – AB Analytics – AB Tactical – AB Mobile (Android) – Rapid Engagement Module – IBEAM

Product Support

Applied Ballistics is not only integrated in to a host of devices, but also apps. These apps are the most accurate, and highly vetted on the market. Some of the apps are used for managing Applied Ballistics embedded devices, while others are stand alone apps for gathering your firing solution in the field. In this section you will find support material that will help you use your Applied Ballistics app with maximum effectiveness.

01. Applied Ballistics Analytics

Applied Ballistics® Analytics is the ultimate desktop Ballistics program. Using the Applied Ballistics® solver, you can calculate ballistics based on G1 or G7 referenced BC’s as well as the full library of Applied Ballistics® custom drag models. The state of the art solver combined with laboratory measured drag data makes this the best and most complete solver on the market.

OS Requirements: Windows 7 / Newer

User Manual

02. Applied Ballistics Profile Loader

The Applied Ballistics® Profile Loader is free software that is used to build/manage/edit weapon/ammo profiles for the Applied Ballistics® Integrated devices. This software is capable of loading profiles on to Garmin® Foretrex® 701s, Kestrels, RAPTAR-S, ABREM’s, and other devices. Included in the software is the Custom Drag Model Library. Giving the user an option for G1/G7 or Custom Drag Models in the weapon profile.

OS Requirements: Windows 7 / Newer

User Manual
ABLoader

04. Applied Ballistics Tactical

The Applied Ballistics Tactical Application for Android was developed for the military sniper, with direct input from the community on desired features, interface, and functionality. Dubbed “the easy button” of ballistics apps by active duty snipers, this application is the no-frills solution for professional shooters who need an accurate solution fast.

User Manual

03. Applied Ballistics Mobile

The Applied Ballistics Mobile Application is the most versatile, accurate and user friendly ballistics program available. Calculate accurate fire control solutions for long range rifle shooting. Accounts for all major and minor trajectory variables including the use of measured G7 BC’s and even the option to use custom drag curves for specific bullets.

OS Requirements: iOS / Android

User Manual

05. Sig Sauer BDX Devices & Application

Kilo3000 BDX

The revolutionary new Sig Ballistic Data Xchange (BDX) System from Sig Sauer is a game-changing rangefinder and riflescope system that uses your ballistics, environmental conditions and Bluetooth to illuminate the exact holdover dot. The simple to use, modular BDX system centers around the Sig BDX App (available free for iOS and Android). Once installed, you can easily pair the app with any Sig BDX Rangefinder and BDX Rifle Scope to instantly feed ballistic data right to the scope’s reticle where the correct holdover will be illuminated, ensuring you’re right on target quickly and easily without complicated math or turret dialing. Simply range a target, put the holdover dot on the target, and pull the trigger. And the most impressive part…all this is done in a scope that looks and feels like a standard rifle scope, at a surprisingly affordable price! The Sig BDX system components are available separately or in conveniently packaged kits.

OS Requirements: iOS / Android

User Manual

06. Bushnell Nitro 1800 & Application

Powered by Applied Ballistics, the Nitro 1800 provides a ballistic solution to 800 yards out of the box (upgradeable to over 2000 yards) and pairs with your smartphone for easy set up and data input. Range to Over 2000 yards, configure ballistics data, get holdovers, wind adjustment and more with onboard Applied Ballistics. Featuring Bluetooth capability, connect the Nitro 1800 rangefinder to the Bushnell Ballistic app* on your cell phone or Kestrel for easy data input, update/email range cards, set multiple target distances, input environmentals, shot angle and much more

OS Requirements: iOS / Android

User Manual
Nitro 1800

07. Kestrel Ballistics Weather Meters & Application

The Kestrel Ballistics Weather Meters with Applied Ballistics is a comprehensive weather meter solution for measurement and logging of primary environmental conditions, including wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, heat index, pressure, and altitude. Containing a powerful ballistics calculator to help you hit your long-range shot on the first try. These meters employ the Applied Ballistics bullet library of custom drag models, an exact measurement of your bullet’s drag profile plus corrections for Aerodynamic Jump, Spin Drift, Coriolis, and Drop Scale Factoring to achieve accurate extended long-range shots.

OS Requirements: iOS / Android

User Manual

08. Foretrex 701 Ballistic Edition

Navigate the world hands-free with Foretrex 601 and Foretrex 701 with AB Elite software — the durable, wrist-mounted GPS navigators built to military standards. Keep your bearings nearly anywhere with GPS, GLONASS and Galileo satellite systems.

OS Requirements: iOS / Android

User Manual
FORETREX 701 BALLISTIC EDITION

White Papers

Applied Ballistics hosts many great articles on the science of accuracy and long range shooting.  Check out the selection of technical papers below which are free to download in PDF format.  If you prefer to view the material on one of the popular eReaders like Nook or Kindle, follow the links to our online store where you can purchase and download the content in your desired format.

Recommended Products

Over the years, Applied Ballistics has been involved in the development of or testing of certain products. In this section you will find recommended products based on that testing, and short descriptions of them.

01. Accuracy 1st Whiz Wheel

Developed for professional shooters who demand a robust and accurate fire solution under any circumstances. The Accuracy 1st Whiz Wheel provides a fully custom ballistic solution, accurate to 0.1 MIL. This product was developed by Bryan Litz (Applied Ballistics) for Todd Hodnett (Accuracy 1st). Nowhere else will you find a more robust, practical and accurate ballistic tool guaranteed to work day or night, rain or shine, anywhere in the world.

02. Long Range Made Easy (DVD Set)

This 3 Volume DVD set is a collaborative effort between two of the industries best instructors. Bryan Litz and Todd Hodnett. This DVD set will take any shooter from setting up your Rifle/Equipment, to understanding how to use your Applied Ballistic Integrated Equipment and managing wind. For anyone looking to grasp a comprehensive understanding of long range shooting, this is a great resource for shooters from new to experienced.

 

This Educational DVD Set Has 3 Volumes:
1) Volume 1 is a 2 disc set. Disc 1 covers the shooting platform (Rifle, Scope, Bullet). Gear, and Zeroing a rifle. As well as an introduction to Long Range Shooting. Disc 2 goes in to shooting postions, recoil management, setting up a rifle, wind formulas, and spotting.

 

2) Volume 2 is a 2 disc set. Disc 1 goes in to the operation of Ballistic Calculators. How to operate the AB Kestrel, Bullet Diameters, Truing Ballistic Calculators, Drag Scale Factoring, and WEZ (Weapon Employment Zone). Disc 2 takes you to the range to demonstrate in a real world environment important things like methods for managing wind, using the Whiz Wheel, reticles, and one mile shooting.

 

3) Volume 3 covers how to use the TReMoR 2 Reticle. Things discussed are Training with the Reticle, Mounting the Scope, Scope Calibration, Reticle Breakdown, Accuracy 1st Speed Shooting Formula, and more.

03. Whidden Pointing Die System

The idea of pointing the tips of match bullets is to increase BC and uniformity. Different bullets will benefit from this process more or less than others. The BC increase has been measured between 2% and 8% for a variety of long range bullets. Pointing bullet tips also increases uniformity as well (more or less depending on how uniform the bullets are to begin with, out-of-the-box). Bullet pointing has been in common practice for a number of years now with no identifiable downside. So what is the burden of this performance increase? Of course there’s the initial cost of the tool. After that, using the tool is fairly quick and easy, taking less than 10 minutes to point a box of 100 bullets. The Whidden Pointing Die Set was developed with the help of Bryan Litz to ensure its performance. To learn more about the effects of bullet pointing/trimming and how this device performs with different bullets you can read Modern Advancements in Long Range Shooting Vol 2. For a short article on how and when to point bullets see our Bullet Pointing Article.

This system consists of 3 components:

1) The Die Body. This is the same regardless of what is being pointed.

2) Caliber Sleeve. Guides and supports the bullet during the process. Caliber Specific.

3) Die Inserts. Their are 3 inserts determined by bullets geometry and designed by Bryan Litz. To see a list of what inserts go with what bullets see here: Whidden Bullet Die Insert Chart.

WPDSystem-2T

04. Berger Bullets Reloading Manual

With techniques for both the basic and advanced reloader, this 829 page manual features reloading data for over 70 of the most popular cartridges used today. This manual includes everything you have come to expect from a reloading manual, as well as additional tips, techniques and information about the history of Berger Bullets; including “The Story of Walt Berger.” For a full list of Cartridges Included, please see Berger Bullets blog:

1) Reloading Data for over 70 Cartridges

2) Basic Reloading Safety

3) G1 vs G7 Ballistic Coefficients

4) Rifle Barrel Twist Rates Explained

5) Handloading Basics

6) Lot to Lot Powder Variation Discussed

7) Form Factors for Analysis

8) Basic Statistics for Handloading

9) Effects of COAL and CBTO

10) Introductions to Rifle Shooting Disciplines Plus Much More!

Berger-Book

05. Lab Radar

LabRadar was developed by Infinition Inc of Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, Canada. Infinition has been the industry leader in Doppler Radar Technology since 1996 with products being used by defense agencies all over the world. Infinition Inc. has unique expertise in Ballistic Instrumentation Radar Systems and highly sophisticated software for the capture and processing of a ballistic event.

High quality innovative products and services, timely delivery and superior customer support have all contributed to gaining customers and establishing our solid worldwide reputation. Our radar systems include the most complex long range multiple target tracking systems to small laboratory range applications capturing tiny projectiles at ultra high velocities. From this technology the creation of LabRadar was developed for everyday use by individuals.

radar

06. Berger Ammunition

Berger Ammunition offers superior ammunition for shooters that require reliability and consistency. Berger Ammunition was founded to give competitive shooters the best fully loaded ammunition available on the market. Since Berger Ammunitions founding, it has brought the same quality and capability to hunting and tactical ammunition.

Our Ballistician, Bryan Litz, uses the highest quality components (Berger Bullet & Temp In-Sensitive Powders), most advanced scientific techniques and custom developed ballistics software to develop each cartridge. Then our highly trained production staff build the ammunition to his exact specifications with consistency as their top priority. That way each round shoots just as good as the last. Rigorous field testing is done to ensure the capabilities of the load developed in the lab and to quality check the ammunition being produced to 1% accuracy.

Berger-Ammo-wBoxes-P1520395

07. Kestrel Drop 3

The Kestrel Drop 3 is a wireless, waterproof, rugged, popular Weather Meter / Data Logger for those looking for a smaller option that does not report wind.

Used by Military, Police, Federal, and Recreational Shooters around the world, this small but highly portable device has the same accuracy as the Kestrel Wind Meters with Applied Ballistics. This device does not have onboard ballistics but can be used in conjunction with AB Tactical. Its roughly the size of a car key fob, and will last months on a single watch battery.

D3

08. HAWK Smart Scope – Spotting Scope Camera

The Hawk spotting scope camera is the next evolution of digiscoping, it turns any camera spotting scope into a smart scope in just minutes. Simply slide the hawk over the eyepiece of the spotting scope camera and open the TargetVision app on a smartphone or tablet to view the video camera feed and unlock all of the app features (track and number shots, save photos, review sessions, record video and stills). Seeing your shot has never been easier.

  • Fits eyepiece that is between 36mm and 58mm
  • Live HD video
  • App-Based software (iOS and Android compatible)
  • Quick and easy setup
  • 12+ hour runtime
  • Lightweight, portable, and extremely compact
  • 2-year warranty
  • Drop-resistant
  • Weather-resistant
  • No cell or WiFi service required
Hawk_on_Scope_on_Tripod_1200x

09. MARK II ANNEALER

The Mark II AMP Induction annealing machine adds some advances over the original Mark I. First off, the Mark II annealer now works with cartridges from 17 Hornet to 50 BMG. Additional air intakes and upgraded cooling fans provide improved airflow and better cooling for extended annealing sessions. Possibly the most exciting feature of the Mark II annealer is the additiona of pre-loaded AZTEC mode allowing users complete independence in determining the exact, correct annealing setting, regardless of cartridge, brand neck wall thickness or lot.

  • Larger inductor to suit 50 BMG.
  • Capable of annealing everything from .17 Hornet to 50 BMG.
  • Significantly more output power.
  • Ceramic heat shield in the inductor to aid in heat management.
  • Superior cooling allowing near indefinite run time on smaller cases such as 223.
  • User replaceable pilot boss should the existing one get cross threaded or damaged.
  • AZTEC MODE included and ready to use.
amp annealing MARK II

Competitive Rifle Shooting

Applied Ballistics has its roots in competition with most of the team competing in F Class, Bench Rest, Rim Fire, ELR or PRS matches, continuing to sharpen and hone those skills in today’s increasingly competitive discipline of long range target shooting.  The enjoyment of long range shooting comes from the never ending journey of self improvement.  This is not a discipline in which anything comes easy!  Initial success is measured just by learning from mistakes and growing your skills.  Long range target shooting is a never ending learning experience in which you’re constantly searching for fault in your own approach, and imagining creative ways to overcome.

DSC_0738-1024x617
DSC_8487

Along the way you’ll meet the best people in the world.  Free with advice, and willing to help a fellow competitor even if it compromises their own standing in the competition.  Numerous times I’ve seen competitors lend equipment to strangers in need.  In the long range shooting community, you’ll make life long friends and memories so valuable that you’ll feel like a winner regardless of the standings of any given match. Make no mistake, the competition itself is real, and it is fierce!  If you’re in it to win, you’ll work hard and be challenged by the many other competitors who are also competing for gold.  Often times major tournaments are won or lost by X-count (a tie breaker).  Even the steadiest nerves can be shattered in a contest of shear accuracy where multiple points can fall to an invisible gust of wind.

FAQs

Here you will find frequently asked questions related to Applied Ballistics Apps, Software, and Devices.

01. Should I use Line Of Sight(LOS) or Angle Modified Ranging(AMR) when using an App or Ballistic Calculator?

The quick answer to this question is that you should be using Line Of Sight (LOS) and the Angle to the target as the input.

 

Many modern laser range finders consist of different modes for ranging targets. Two of these common modes are Line of Sight (LOS) and Angle Modified Ranging (AMR). Essentially LOS is the true distance between the observer and the target while AMR is a modified distance accounting for angle. The Applied Ballistics Engine does more than simply co-sign the angle when adjusting the firing solution for angled shots. The AB Engine accounts for the change in atmospherics with higher or lower elevation. The AB Engine also accounts for things like changes in drag and gravity in relation to the trajectory and more. When using an Applied Ballistics based product it is always best to use Line of Sight for the range input and the angle to the target, not an Angle Modified Range (AMR).

02. What is GPS vs Galileo vs GLONASS and WAAS?

Garmin Foretrex® 701 with Applied Ballistics® LLC features GPS, GLONASS, & Galileo. It also features WAAS and Ultratrac. But what does all that mean? Today, we answer this question for you.

 

GPS – GPS is an acronym for Global Positioning System, which is an array of 32 satellites. When you use a GPS receiver, the known variable is where the satellites are, but not where you are. The satellites essentially use known time (atomic clock) and location which is transmitted to a receiver. The satellites transmit their time and by measuring the offset of the time between the satellites and the receiver you can determine your location.

 

Galileo – This is similar to GPS, except that it is owned and operated by the European Union and European Space Agency. It was developed to ensure that European Nations do not have to rely on the US (GPS) and Russian (GLONASS) systems.

 

GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema) – This was developed as a Russian alternative to GPS.

 

What does this mean in laymans terms? GPS, Galileo, & GLONASS are different systems that perform the same function. Think of it like Chevy, Ford, & Dodge. All of them build trucks, just to slightly different standards. GPS with WAAS is the highest standard of accuracy. By utilizing more than one system at a time (checking your math, as your 3rd grade teacher used to make you do) you can improve the accuracy of your location measurement. But what about WAAS?

 

WAAS is an acronym for Wide Area Augmentation System. WAAS performs an integrity check on the GPS system, and provides corrections to the individual satellites in 5 second intervals. Essentially, WAAS provides location corrections for the satellites locations to the user, which gives you a higher resolution location measurement by providing the error of each satellites location.

 

Finally, we come to one last feature in the 701 Foretrex: Ultratrac. Ultratrac is a GPS feature that records fewer points of location. By utilizing the GPS feature less often, you can more than double the battery life of the unit. Use Ultratrac when you really don’t need as accurate position/speed tracking.

 

What does this mean for a user? The Garmin Foretrex 701 works with every major positioning system in the world, can be coupled with two of them at a time, and offers advanced features to help conserve battery life with maintaining the highest accuracy.

03. Barometric Pressure vs Station Pressure

Barometric pressure is also known as sea level corrected pressure, and is what the weather station and airports report because it’s useful for pilots and making weather assessments. Barometric pressure is not the actual air pressure where you are, rather it’s a number that’s corrected to sea level. In order to determine the actual air pressure where you are (which is what the ballistics program cares about), you have to account for the effects of altitude. However if you have a handheld weather meter like a Kestrel, you can measure Station Pressure directly which is the actual air pressure where you are. This is the preferred method of inputting pressure data because it’s one less input and relies on only one measurement instead of two.

 

A common error is to mistake station pressure for barometric or vice versa. The consequence of this error is that the wrong air density gets applied which degrades the accuracy of trajectory predictions. This error is increasingly more severe the higher up you are above sea level.
Refer to the image on the right for proper set-up of the atmospheric pressure inputs. Note the reference altitude is set to 0 ft in the Kestrel which indicates it’s displaying uncorrected station pressure, and the Pressure is Absolute box is checked in the program indicating it’s using station pressure.

 

To further clarify the output from the Kestrel, here is an excerpt from the Kestrel user’s manual: “Some final notes – If you wish to know the actual or station pressure for your location (such as for engine tuning), simply set the reference altitude on the BARO screen to “0”. In this case, the Kestrel Meter will not make any adjustment and will display the measured value. (Engine tuning and ballistics software sometimes refer to atmospheric or station pressure as “absolute pressure.” These applications are concerned with the actual air density, as opposed to pressure gradients relating to weather, so barometric pressure is less useful.”

04. What reticles do you have in Applied Ballistics Mobile?

Here is a current list of our reticles in the AB Mobile App:

 

Bushnell G2
Bushnell G3i
Bushnell G2H
Gen 2 XR
Horus H58
Horus H59
Leupold Tactical Milling
March FMA-1 3-24 Illum
March FMA-1 3-24
March FMA-1 5-40 Illum
March FMA-1 5-40
March FMA-2 3-24
March FMA-2 5-40
March FML-1 3-24 Illum
March FML-1 3-24
March FML-1 5-40 Illum
March FML-1 5-40
March MTR-1 Illum
March MTR-1
March MTR-2 Illum
March MTR-2
March MTR-3 Illum
March MTR-3
March MTR-4 Illum
March MTR-4
Mildot
Nightforce MOAR
Nightforce NP-R1
Nightforce NP-R2
Nightforce MLR
Schmidt Bender P4L
Sightron LRMOA 2
TReMoR 2
USO Gap
Vortex Viper PST EBR-1 FFP
Vortext Viper PST EBR-1 SFP

05. Managing Muzzle Velocity & MV Variation

As a refresher here are a couple bullet points before we get started:

 

1. Chronographs measure velocity at their location, not Muzzle Velocity. Muzzle Velocity needs to be properly calculated using the bullets BC, and atmospheric information. To read more on this see here: Velocity Decay Article.

 

2. You should have at least 4 data points from your current lot of powder that are 30 Deg/F (15 Deg/C) apart. It is always best to have data points for the coldest, and warmest points that you normally shoot in.

 

3. Powder Temperature Sensitivity is non-linear, and will be more stable at certain temperatures than at others. No two powders will act the same.

 

AB Mobile – First we will go over how to use this in AB Mobile. In AB Mobile you use fps per Degree. Which means how many feet per second the MV shifts per degree of temperature change. This is fairly simple to use, and most powders fill fall between 0.3 – 3.0 fps/deg shift. For example, let’s use the following data. 3010 fps @ 100 deg/F, 2970 fps @ 70 deg/F, 2935 fps @ 40 deg/F & 2895 fps @ 10 deg/F. So we would take the total change in MV and divide by the total change in temp. In this case 105 fps shift / over a 90-degree span. (105/90) = 1.28 fps per degree. So I would enter it into the AB Mobile App as such:

 

Muzzle Velocity = 3010 FPS (917.4 m/s)
Powder Temp = 100 deg/F (37.8 deg/C)
MV Variation = 1.28 fps (0.39 m/s)

 

MV Variation IS NOT your SD! Please do not enter your Muzzle Velocity SD in as the variation.

 

For the rest of the devices, software, and apps you will find a Temp-Table. This is a very simple feature to use. You simply input the Calculated Muzzle Velocity (remember chronographs measure velocity at its location, not MV) and the temperature at the time you tested it. For example, let’s use 3000 fps @ 100 deg/F, 2985 fps @ 70 deg/F, 2968 fps @ 40 deg/F & 2950 fps @ 10 deg/F. You would input this data like this:

 

100 deg/F (37.8 deg/C) – 3000 fps (914.4 m/s)
70 deg/F (21.1 deg/C) – 2985 fps (909.8 m/s)
40 deg/F (4.4 deg/C) – 2968 fps (904.7 m/s)
10 deg/F (-12.2 deg/C) – 2950 fps (899.2 m/s)

 

Side Note: When using the MV-Temp table, you will not be able to adjust muzzle velocity on your device. This is by design. The MV-Temp table is calibrating the MV based on the current temperature. If you want to be able to adjust this, then you need to turn the Temp-Table off. This is easily done, and I show you how in the video below. If you notice you need to input a velocity, because it’s not following the trend. Say at 87 degrees in the above example you have a velocity of 2998, then you can do this by simply adding that to the table, and it will then adjust how it calculates the MV-Temp Table. If you want to do a MV Calibration, on the device then you must hand input that variable in to the table, or turn the table off. Doing a MV Calibration and trying to save, will not change the MV. Don’t worry, I will show you how to properly do this in the video below. Just know that you cannot do a MV Calibration or adjust the MV the normal way, when you are using a Temp-Table.

 

Sorting Temp-Table Inputs – The Kestrel will automatically sort them, as seen in the video. The software and apps will not. The proper way to input them in to the software and apps, is in order from hottest to coldest temperature. As indicated by the directions, and seen in the screen shots here.

06. I have purchased a Custom Drag Model but it is not showing up.

Google play does not always instantly apply purchases. If you have previously purchased a CDM, and it is not showing up try these two things:

 

  • Make sure you have given google time to process the purchase.
  • Try the Restore Purchases Button located in the app. You can find out more about the Restore Purchases Feature in the User Guide.

07. Recommended Ballistic Calibration Distance is Too Far.

Another topic that gets brought up a lot is the ability to shoot the ranges needed to do a Ballistics Calibration. Do note, Ballistics Calibration, for the best results, should be done ONLY at long range. More specifically Long Range in regards to the caliber, or Mach 1.2-0.9. Remember this is system dependent. A 22LR leaves the barrel transonic, while a 338 might go transonic at 1 mile. This is in part due to error reporting, but also because of the accuracy of our test data. Bryan Litz takes great care in making sure the data collected is extremely accurate. So if you are using our Custom Drag Model data, and your firing solution is off in the supersonic range (Mach 1.2+) then the culprit is more than likely your muzzle velocity. Note: Custom Drag Models are NOT G7 BCs and are NOT Banded G7 BCs. You cannot accurately re-create the CDM by using banded BCs. While this does apply to the use of G7 & G1 Drag Models, because the averaged G7 BC is good for most velocities in the supersonic range. If your solution is off, at Mach 1.2+ then you need to calibrate your Muzzle Velocity. Keeping in mind, that sometimes the firing solution is correct, and your turrets might not be tracking perfect can also be a culprit here. For more details on this, reference Accuracy and Precision for Long Range Shooting by Bryan Litz, Ballistic Calibration Article coupled with the Chronograph Performance Review Article.

 

  • AB Mobile App: You will be able to input ranges outside the recommended ranges, however it might cause problems due to both error reporting which is covered in the Ballistic Calibration Article, and the limited distance between points.
  • Kestrel: If you attempt to do a DSF (Drop Scale Factor) at too short a distance, it will not accept multiple inputs. They must be done At Mach 1.2 – 0.9 and slower. If you need to adjust in the supersonic range, use the MV (Muzzle Velocity) Calibration.

07. If my bullet stability is below 1.5 will Applied Ballistics Mobile automatically change my BC?

No

08. I am looking at the Kestrel Elite (5700) vs the K4500 which is better?

This is dependent on the shooters needs. The K5 is certainly an upgrade from the K4, however when picking an Elite vs Sportsman or K5 vs K4. Different shooters have different needs. It is important to understand the differences between the K4500 Applied Ballistics model and the K4500 Sportsman model are not same differences found in the K5700 Elite vs Sportsman. You can now purchase a firmware upgrade to change the K5700 Sportsman over to a K5700 Elite. The Elite model has the following advantages over the Sportsman: DSF Calibration, AB Custom Drag Models, 5 Targets vs 1 Target, 16 Weapons vs 3 Weapons, Range Card (Sportsman does not have a range card), More detailed Ballistics Screen, and Zero Offset. The Elite model has a detailed ballistics screen, the Sportsman only displays basic information. Also on the Ballistics App, a Sportsman Unit doesn’t have not Multi-Target or Custom Drag Curves. Only the Elite Unit has Access to these features. The new sportsman is more accurate than the old sportsman when looking at firing solutions inside the supersonic range of the bullet. The Sportsman does now calculate Coriolis, Aerodynamic Jump, and Spin Drift. Unlike the K4500 Sportsman which does not.

09. I am looking at a Kestrel vs Applied Ballistics Mobile, which one do you recommend most?

We recommend the Kestrel over the use of a Phone. The Kestrel has a better battery life (15+ days with Bluetooth off), is more durable (it even floats), and is not reliable on cell service to gather weather information. So the Kestrel will work off the grid (so will the apps, and some like AB Tac are designed for off the grid use) and give you on demand, real time weather data.

10. I have the Point Mass Solver that came with the book, how can I get this working on my mobile device?

The PM Solver cannot be transferred to a mobile device. It will only run on a PC, or on a Windows Mobile device running an OS similar to Windows 10.

 

When you encounter AB Software designed to run on a Computer, which is not compatible on mobile devices. You may run that software on netbooks which have become more and more mobile, including 2 in 1 devices where the keyboard will disconnect becoming a tablet. It is possible to run this software on a 2 in 1 platform as long as it contains a full version of Windows 10 such as the Nextbook Flexx and Asus Transformer Books. You must make sure it has windows 10 home or greater and NOT windows mobile in order for it to work. It is also important that the device has a USB Port. Not all netbooks come with USB ports on them Some only have the USB Port on the Keyboard, Nextbook Flexx for example. Meaning you can only use USB Devices while they are docked to the keyboard. This is where 2 in 1 or non detachable devices can be a better choice. While the keyboard does not detach, it does fold behind the screen making it tablet like. Example: Asus Q53UX. While not as small, they maintain all the functionality of a laptop while folded flat. Warning: Some 2 in 1 devices are Windows Mobile and/or Android. Read the specs before you buy. They need to be Windows 10 Home or newer.

11. I have purchased one of your apps on my mobile device before, I now have a new device, or multiple devices, do I have to pay to download it again?

No, as long as you login with the original login you bought the app under, it can be installed on multiple devices.

12. I bought Applied Ballistics Mobile on Android and now have an iPhone (or vice versa), can I switch platforms?

No, Google and Apple do not honor purchases made on the others store. We do not have the ability to transfer your purchase from one store to another. Even with all the similarities the apps are actually different. They are different platforms, with different coding.

13. Can I input my cosign value into the application instead of degrees?

No, the reason we use positive and negative degrees is that our system calculates for both uphill and downhill firing. While they are similar, the solutions are not exact for each scenario. The system also takes in to account the slowing of the bullet, and the changes in pressure as you go higher/lower in altitude. Giving you a more precise solution vs the improved rifleman’s rule. For more on this read Chapter 4 of Applied Ballistics for Long Range Shooting 3rd Edition.

14. My barrel twist rate is lower than the optimum recommended, will this be a problem?

No. As long as your SG (Gyroscopic Stability) factor is above 1.05. Note the formula has an accuracy to +/- 0.1 SG. Numbers below 1.05 will lose both Accuracy and BC, and most likely tumble. Numbers between 1.05 and 1.45 will have a lower BC but retain Accuracy. Stability levels above 1.5 will have optimum Accuracy and BC. For every 0.1 SG you drop below 1.5 you will have an average of 3% BC loss. This number is better and worse for certain bullets. But for example, if you calculate out to a 1.3 SG then you can expect an average BC loss of 6%. On the other side, over spinning a bullet is a bit of a myth. So if your barrel twist rate is far faster than recommended, you only need to make sure you account for the added spin drift. Also remember the recommended twist rates are for EVERYONE. So shooters at higher altitude, can get away with slower twist rates. Your DA (Density Altitude) plays a role here.

15. I am shooting a plastic tipped bullet, will the stability calculator still work?

Yes, the stability calculator is accurate for tipped as well as non-tipped bullets.

16. My zero shows to be XXX yards, and not 100 yards, can you help me fix this?

Nothing is wrong here. A phenomenon called Aerodynamic Jump is causing this. When a direct crosswind makes contact with the bullet as it is leaving the barrel, it causes a slight and permanent shift in the trajectory. This can be seen by setting your wind speed to 0 or setting your wind direction to 12 or 6 o’clock. You will see your zero has returned to your zero range. This is covered in full detail in Applied Ballistics for Long Range Shooting 3rd Edition, Chapter 5.

17. How important is inputting zero atmosphere?

For a 100 yard zero you DO NOT need to worry about atmospherics. This is for long range zeros (example 300 yards). If you zero at 100 yards, your zero is good for altitudes and conditions.

18. I am using two different apps, and my firing solution is 1/2/3 moa off, can you help me please?

The biggest culprit here comes from 1 of 4 different places.

 

  • BC: Sometimes users will select to use a G7 BC, or switch BCs but the number doesn’t actually change. Make sure you verify not only that you have selected the correct drag standard (G1 or G7), but that it is an appropriate number. If you are running a 6.5 Creedmoor, and have a BC of around .600 yet you have selected G7 form factor, this is incorrect.
  • MV: Sometimes users do not have the correct muzzle velocity input (this can be due to change in weather), but it can also be due to using MV Variation (Or Temp Table) incorrectly. We have detailed information on how to use this feature in the AB Mobile Guide on the App Page. Your input for fps/degree should be between zero and two; any higher and you’re going to be off.
  • Turret Tracking: This tends to throw people off for a number of reasons. First off, some users don’t know to even check this. Remember it’s a mechanic adjustment that is subject not only to wear, but defects. Secondly some users don’t know how to input it correctly. If you have the Kestrel, you simply correct your MV for this. You can find out more in the Ballistics Calibration Article in the Articles. If you are using the AB Mobile app, you are entering a correction FACTOR. Meaning that number is going to multiplied by something. So if you change that 1 to a 0, you are in for a world of hurt. The AB Mobile guide on the resource page tells you how to properly use this number, on top of the turret tracking test document you can download which has the formulas and setup for this test.
  • Segmented BCs: You should always double check and make sure that the segmented BCs are in order. If they do not follow in order for velocity, it can cause firing solution errors.

19. Should I use a G1 or G7 form factor?

 

You should be using a Custom Drag Model, which is neither a G1 nor a G7. It is actually a representation of the actual bullet model against itself. CDMs (Custom Drag Models) ARE NOT G7 curves or segmented BC’s. However if you are going to use a G1 or G7, use a G1 when it’s a flat base bullet like the 22LR and 40 gr FB Varmint, use a G7 when it’s a boat tailed like the .308 185 gr Juggernaut and .243 105 gr Hybrid.

 

You can read more in our white papers section above.

20. I have a gain twist barrel, or I plan on getting a gain twist barrel, how do I input this/what twist rate should I get?

The important thing with gain twist is that the muzzle exit twist needs to be the twist required to stabilize the bullet (or faster). So as a ballistics program input, if it’s a 1:10-8” gain, you would use is 8.

21. Where do I measure from to do a Tall Target Test?

From the Turrets. You need to be measuring from the target to the turrets with a 100 yard or meter tape measure. Do not rely on a Laser Range Finder.

 

Read more about tall target testing here: Tall Target Test Worksheet